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狗狗的歪头杀不只是卖萌,还是聪明的表现******

狗狗的歪头杀总能萌倒人类,但这动作究竟意味着什么?现在,终于有科学家对此展开研究了,他们的初步发现是:聪明的狗狗更爱歪头,还总是往同一个方向歪。

The adorable head tilt some dogs do is a sign they're concentrating and recalling information, a study found

Sometimes, when we talk to our canine companions, they tilt their heads adorably to one side.

有时,当我们与狗狗交谈时,它们会可爱地向一侧歪头。

Although a dog's quizzical head cock might suggest incredulity or confusion, the gesture could actually be a sign of concentration and increased attention, according to a study published last week.

根据上周发表的一项研究,虽然狗狗的歪头杀可能表明怀疑或困惑,但这个姿势实际上可能是注意力集中和注意力增强的标志。

Researchers investigated how well 40 dogs of various breeds could memorize the names for different toys, then recall that information in order to retrieve specific toys in response to their owners' commands. Most of the pups weren't able to learn the toy names, but seven border collies showed remarkable aptitude for the task.

研究人员调查了 40 只不同品种的狗狗记住不同玩具名称的能力,然后回忆这些信息以便根据主人的命令检索特定玩具。大多数幼犬无法记住玩具名称,但七只边境牧羊犬表现出了非凡的能力。

The scientists deemed that group "gifted word learners," and found that the seven collies had something in common: They all tilted their heads far more frequently than their non-gifted counterparts after hearing a command.

科学家们认为这些狗狗是“有天赋的词汇学习者”,并发现这七只边牧有一个共同点:在听到命令后,它们都比没有天赋的同类更频繁地歪头。

The data showed that the gifted learners tilted their heads 43% of the time, while the other 33 dogs did the gesture just 2% of the time.

数据显示,有天赋的狗狗有 43% 的时间会歪头,而其他 33 只狗狗只有 2% 的时间会做出这种姿势。

"It seems that there is a relationship between success in retrieving a named toy and frequent head tilts upon hearing its name," Shany Dror, an animal cognition researcher at Eötvös Loránd University in Hungary who co-authored the study, said in a press release. "That is why we suggest an association between head-tilting and processing relevant and meaningful stimuli."

“似乎成功地根据玩具名称找到玩具与听到玩具名字时歪头之间存在联系。”该研究的合作者、匈牙利埃特沃斯洛兰大学的动物认知研究员 Shany Dror 在一份新闻稿中说,“这就是为什么我们建议将歪头与处理相关且有意义的刺激之间联系起来。”

This is the first study to examine head-tilting behavior in dogs, according to the study authors.

据研究者称,这是第一项对狗狗歪头行为的研究。

In the first of three experiments described in the study, the researchers asked 40 dog owners to test their pets once a month for three months. Each owner taught their dog the names of two toys, then asked the animal to fetch one from an adjacent room. The toys remained the same throughout the three months.

该研究进行了三个实验,在第一个实验中,研究人员要求 40 名狗主人在三个月内每月测试一次他们的宠物。每个主人都教他们的狗狗两个玩具的名字,然后让动物从相邻的房间拿一个。玩具在三个月内保持不变。

Only the seven collies that were able to learn the toys' names (the gifted learners) were included in the next experiment, though one died before it began. In that second experiment, owners tested the six remaining dogs in the same way over three months, but with up to 13 toys.

只有七只能够学会玩具名字的边牧(有天赋的学习者)被纳入下一个实验,尽管其中一只在实验开始之前就死了。在第二个实验中,主人在三个月内以同样的方式测试了剩下的六只狗,但最多不超过13 个玩具。

One of the collies, Whisky, brought the correct toy back 54 out of 59 times. Two others were successful more than 90% of the time. The other three had success rates of between 57% and 75%.

其中一只叫做威士忌的边牧,在 59 次实验中带回了 54 次正确的玩具。另外两个的成功率超过 90%。其他三个的成功率在 57% 到 75% 之间。

Then in a third experiment, the six gifted pups showed they could learn 12 new toy names in one week, then remember those names for at least two months.

在第三个实验中,六只有天赋的幼崽表明他们可以在一周内学习 12 个新的玩具名称,然后记住这些名称至少两个月。

"We know that dogs can easily learn words that are linked to actions, such as 'sit' or 'down.' But very few dogs can learn names of objects," Dror said.

“我们知道狗可以轻松地学习与动作相关的单词,例如‘坐’或‘坐下’。但是很少有狗可以学习物体的名称,” Dror 说。

Only the gifted dogs who performed well at the toy retrieval tasks consistently tilted their heads after hearing a verbal command. That led Dror's team to conclude that the gesture is related to collies' attempts to parse out the meaning of a word. The tilt could indicate that the collies are mentally matching a toy name that they hear to a visual image stored in their memories.

只有在玩具检索任务中表现出色的天才狗在听到口头命令后才会一直歪着头。这使得Dror 的团队得出结论,这个姿势与牧羊犬试图解析单词含义有关。这种歪头可能表明牧羊犬在心理上将他们听到的玩具名称与存储在他们记忆中的视觉图像相匹配。

Similar to the way humans are right or left handed, the gifted collies, too, tended to cock their heads to just one side or the other. Their favored side stayed the same across the three experiments, and the position of the dogs' owners in front of them did not influence the direction of the tilt.

与人类惯用右手或左手写字的方式类似,天才牧羊犬也倾向于将头偏向一侧或另一侧。它们偏爱的歪头方向在三个实验中保持不变,并且狗主人在他们面前的位置不会影响歪头的方向。

"If a dog was a left tilter, it would stay a left tilter," Andrea Sommese, Dror's co-author and colleague, told Science.

“如果一只狗喜欢向左歪头,它就会一直向左歪头,” Dror 的合作者兼同事 Andrea Sommese 告诉《科学》杂志。

To the researchers, that consistency may be additional evidence that dogs tilt their heads when paying close attention to a task.

对研究人员来说,这种一致性可能是狗在密切关注一项任务时会倾斜头部的额外证据。

Although the study only looked at gifted border collies, the authors suggested that a talent for learning and remembering object names is not unique to that breed.

尽管该研究仅针对有天赋的边境牧羊犬,但作者认为学习和记住物体名称的才能并非该品种独有。

Dror said her group has also observed the skill in a German Shepherd, a Pekingese, and a mini Australian Shepherd. A study from earlier this year also identified a Yorkshire Terrier that rivaled Whisky's success.

Dror 说,她的小组还在德国牧羊犬、北京犬和迷你澳大利亚牧羊犬身上观察到了这种技能。今年早些时候的一项研究还确定了一种可以与威士忌相媲美的约克夏犬。

西安明后天又迎降水降温 秦岭高海拔山区有雨夹雪******


本报讯(记者 陶颖)10月17日,西安的天气还是比较阴冷的。阳光早晨“探头”后,很快便隐藏进云层中,气温低得人不想出门。

据预报,受冷空气影响,预计 19-20日西安市有一次小到中雨量级的降水天气过程,秦岭高海拔山区有雨夹雪,过程期间最高气温将下降5~6℃。18日:多云转晴天,6~19℃;19日:多云转小雨,9~14℃;20日:中雨转小雨,8~13℃。

18日:全省多云间晴天,榆林北部局地、陕南南部部分地方有小阵雨。19日:全省阴天,大部分地方有小雨,陕北大部有4级左右偏南风,关中北部、商洛有4级左右偏东风。日平均气温陕北南部、关中、陕南下降4℃左右。20日:全省阴天,陕北大部分地方有小雨,关中南部、陕南有中雨,秦岭山区有雨夹雪或中到大雪。关中、陕南日平均气温下降4~6℃并伴有4-5级偏东风。



来源:三秦都市报

编辑:王莉文

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Over half of Ukrainian children displaced by war: UN******

AFP

Ukrainian refugees exit a plane chartered by a Swiss millionaire at Zurich Airport, on March 22, 2022.

More than half of all children in Ukraine have been displaced from their homes since Russia launched its full-scale attack on February 24, the United Nations said Thursday.

"One month of war in Ukraine has led to the displacement of 4.3 million children -- more than half of the country's estimated 7.5 million child population," the UN children's agency Unicef said.

Displaced children make up nearly half of the over 10 million people who have been forced to flee their homes since the invasion began.

More than 1.8 million children have fled Ukraine as refugees, while another 2.5 million are now displaced inside their war-ravaged country, the UN said.

"The war has caused one of the fastest large-scale displacements of children since World War II," Unicef chief Catherine Russell said.

"This is a grim milestone that could have lasting consequences for generations to come," she warned.

"Children's safety, well-being and access to essential services are all under threat from non-stop horrific violence."

Her comments came a month after Russian tanks rolled over the border, bringing a conflict that has already killed thousands of Ukrainian civilians.

The UN human rights office has confirmed that 81 children have been killed in the conflict and 108 injured but acknowledges that the true toll is likely far higher.

The UN has also decried that the conflict is taking a devastating toll on civilian infrastructure and access to basic services.

The World Health Organization has verified 64 attacks on health care, including on hospitals, clinics and ambulances, since the attack began.

And Ukraine's education ministry has reported damage to more than 500 schools and other education facilities, according to Unicef.

The UN children's agency estimated that 1.4 million people now lack access to safe water, while 4.6 million people have limited access to water or are at risk of being cut-off.

"Over 450,000 children aged six to 23 months need complementary food support," it said.

Unicef also cautioned that it is already observing a reduction in vaccination coverage for routine and childhood immunisation, including for measles and polio.

"This could quickly lead to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases especially in overcrowded areas where people are sheltering from the violence," it said.

The UN agency reiterated its appeal for an immediate ceasefire and for the protection of children from harm.

It stressed that essential infrastructure that children depend on, like schools, hospitals and buildings sheltering civilians, "must never come under attack."

"In just a few weeks, the war has wrought such devastation for Ukraine's children," Russell said.

"Children urgently need peace and protection. They need their rights."

Analysis: Bayern's vaccination trouble continues ahead of Champions League******

By Oliver Trust。

BERLIN, Nov. 22 (Xinhua) -- Julian Nagelsmann finds himself in the middle of difficult preparations for the Champions League group encounter against Kyiv this Tuesday evening.。

The Bayern coach has to deal with the loss of eight players while turbulences due to the club's COVID-19 vaccination problem increase.。

Aside from positive tests of defenders Niklas Sule and Josip Stanisic, five unvaccinated players are forced into quarantine.。

The 2020 treble winner announced to travel with a small group of 15 to meet the Ukrainian side.。

The Bayern coach spoke of a stress test for his squad as several players refused to receive the vaccination jab. "Most important for a group is to care for each other. It's not about having the same opinions about certain topics."

Nagelsmann tried to ease tensions for the Bavarians after club leaders announced wages cuts for unvaccinated players having to attend quarantine.。

Health authorities demanded that Joshua Kimmich, Jamal Musiala, Serge Gnabry, Eric Maxim Choupo-Moting, and Michael Cuisance to stay isolated for seven days after being rated as unvaccinated contact persons of the first degree.。

Reports speak of Kimmich and others being surprised and annoyed by the clubs' actions regarding wage cuts. Others spoke of a growing gap between the vaccinated and the not jabbed fraction in the squad. A media report speaks of Bayern players considering legal actions against the club.。

"I am not happy to read about inside details in the media. Indiscretions might have been with the club for long, but it certainly doesn't help," the 34-year-old stated.。

Nagelsmann referred to reports speaking of Kimmich receiving wages cuts of up to 384,000 euros per week. The news won't affect the team's good mood, the Bayern coach said.。

"At the moment we are far off the decisive games that might come in the knockout stage. But the fact is, we can't rely on the full strength of our forwarding line," Nagelsmann added. "The team won't break apart."

The German club is already qualified for the next round.。

The Bayern coach demanded from the club to secure the players' privacy.。

Meanwhile, in-house reports talk of Bayern considering excluding unvaccinated players for training from the rest of the squad. Nagelsmann admitted to being annoyed by the Covid-19 topic in his club.。

The reigning German Champion last weekend lost its second national league encounter.。

Next to the Kimmich fraction, the 2020 treble winner in Kyiv most likely has to replace Marcel Sabitzer and Kingsley Coman. "In the case of King we think about some minutes on the pitch but won't take a risk after his injury," the Bayern coach said.。

Dayot Upamecano misses the Kyiv match due to a yellow card ban.。

Striker Leroy Sane spoke of the importance of vaccinations in times of the pandemic but said he is respecting his teammates' opinions. "Of course, I want them to be around on the pitch. I am convinced that getting vaccinated helps, but it remains a personal decision," the German international commented. Enditem。

中国医师协会以岭关爱医师健康专项基金慰问进修医师座谈会召开

1.云南新增确诊病例11例 新增无症状感染者1例

2.大兴黄村约谈职能部门,加强企业防疫监管力度

3.巴西单日新冠死亡病例超四千,博索纳罗仍然反对防疫封锁措施

4.村民助50多人从山洪中脱险反自责:再大点声喊就好了

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